Currently Used Products

There are a number of products used to try and prevent malaria. The main ones are IRS and ITN’s.

The aim of this page is to identify currently used interventions for dealing with mosquitoes. However, they offer some success but the ever increasing resistance to standard insecticides is of major concern.

Vectorcide products offer a more effective and safer solution to help prevent malaria, dengue and other life changing vector borne diseases.

Vector control is the main way to prevent and reduce malaria transmission. If coverage of vector control interventions within a specific area is high enough, then a measure of protection will be conferred across the community.

WHO recommends protection for all people at risk of malaria with effective malaria vector control. Two forms of vector control – insecticide-treated mosquito nets and indoor residual spraying – are effective in a wide range of circumstances.

IRS

Indoor residual spraying (IRS) with insecticides is a way to reduce malaria transmission. It involves spraying the inside of housing structures with an insecticide, typically two or three times per year. e.

Globally, IRS protection declined from a peak of 5% in 2010 to  2% in 2018, with decreases seen across all WHO regions, apart from the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region.

There is an ever-growing resistance in mosquitoes, to resist IRS insecticides efficacy.

ITN's

Sleeping under an insecticide-treated net (ITN) can reduce contact between mosquitoes and humans by providing both a physical barrier and an insecticidal effect.

In 2018, about half of all people at risk of malaria in Africa were protected by an insecticide-treated net, compared to 29% in 2010. However, ITN coverage has been at a standstill since 2016.

Antimalarial Drugs

Antimalarial medicines can also be used to prevent malaria. For travellers, malaria can be prevented through chemoprophylaxis, which suppresses the blood stage of malaria infections, thereby preventing malaria disease.

This is not a practical solution for third world countries.

Resistance to antimalarial drugs

Resistance to antimalarial medicines is a recurring problem. Resistance of malaria parasites to previous generations of medicines, such as chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), became widespread in the 1950s and 1960s, undermining malaria control efforts and reversing gains in child survival.
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Other Interventions Used

The choice of interventions depends on the malaria transmission level in the area (e.g., in areas of low transmission level, intermittent preventive treatment for pregnant women is usually not recommended).

  • Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs)
  • Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnant women
  • Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infancy
  • Indoor residual spraying (IRS)

Concern over the environmental impact of DDT led to the introduction of other, more expensive insecticides. As the eradication campaign wore on, the responsibility for maintaining it was shifted to endemic countries that were not able to shoulder the financial burden. The campaign collapsed and in many areas, malaria soon returned to pre-campaign levels.

As a result of the cost of IRS, the negative publicity due to the failure of the Malaria Eradication Campaign, and environmental concerns about residual insecticides, IRS programmes were largely disbanded other than in a few countries with resources to continue them.

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